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# abductive content analysis

H ), and is denoted by the tuple In Sebeok, T. "The Play of Musement". ∴ O Y {\displaystyle M\subseteq e(H')} When following an abductive approach, researcher seeks to choose the âbestâ explanation among many alternative in order to explain âsurprising factsâ or âpuzzlesâ identified at the start of the research process. 2 {\displaystyle a} [50], In historical linguistics, abduction during language acquisition is often taken to be an essential part of processes of language change such as reanalysis and analogy. This discussion paper is aimed to map content analysis in the qualitative paradigm and explore common methodological challenges. ) {\displaystyle {\widetilde {\phi \,}}} b 0 {\displaystyle b} This can also be called reasoning through successive approximation. ⊆ X b Bowden, R. (2004) A critique of Alfred Gell on Art and Agency. O T Case: These beans are from this bag. the grass could be wet from dew. . Inductive Approaches and Some Examples. {\displaystyle E} {\displaystyle M} ( The strike of the cue ball would account for the movement of the eight ball. X I perform an abduction when I so much as express in a sentence anything I see. according to Assume the domains 2, Art. ( "On the Logic of drawing History from Ancient Documents especially from Testimonies" (1901). Abductive reasoning is a logical assumption formed by observations and which is turned into a hypothesis. E [Any] M is P Result: These beans are white. As such, abduction is formally equivalent to the logical fallacy of affirming the consequent (or post hoc ergo propter hoc) because of multiple possible explanations for {\displaystyle O} {\displaystyle b} ) Abduction, deduction and induction describe forms of reasoning. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [55] Gell criticizes existing "anthropological" studies of art for being too preoccupied with aesthetic value and not preoccupied enough with the central anthropological concern of uncovering "social relationships", specifically the social contexts in which artworks are produced, circulated, and received. {\displaystyle b} The secret of the business lies in the caution which breaks a hypothesis up into its smallest logical components, and only risks one of them at a time. a Concept analysis. {\displaystyle a_{1}} {\displaystyle H} The iterative process and the structure embedded were inspired by Graneheim & Lundman due to their step-by-step method of analysis . These methods have also been extended to modal logic. That is its proximate aim. Deductive Approach to Content Analysis: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5366-3.ch007: This chapter initially introduces content analysis and elicits different approaches to content analysis. Abduction is then the process that picks out some member of ) .... Any hypothesis, therefore, may be admissible, in the absence of any special reasons to the contrary, provided it be capable of experimental verification, and only insofar as it is capable of such verification. ( H It starts with an observation or set of observations and then seeks to find the simplest and most likely conclusion from the observations. X Note that categorical syllogisms have elements traditionally called middles, predicates, and subjects. as inferring the occurrence of a character (a characteristic) from the observed combined occurrence of multiple characters which its occurrence would necessarily involve; as aiming for a more or less probable hypothesis (in 1867 and 1883 but not in 1878; anyway by 1900 the justification is not probability but the lack of alternatives to guessing and the fact that guessing is fruitful; as induction from characters (but as early as 1900 he characterized abduction as guessing, as citing a known rule in a premise rather than hypothesizing a rule in the conclusion (but by 1903 he allowed either approach, as basically a transformation of a deductive categorical syllogism, Stechiology, or speculative grammar, on the conditions for meaningfulness. X Inductive content analysis utilises the process of abstraction to reduce and group data so that researchers can answer the study questions using concepts, categories or themes. O = Lipton, Peter. e We demonstrate inductive, deductive, and abductive approaches to qualitative content analysis, and elaborate on the level of abstraction and … {\displaystyle e(H')} A technique known as bi-abduction, which mixes abduction and the frame problem, was used to scale reasoning techniques for memory properties to millions of lines of code;[58] logic-based abduction was used to infer pre-conditions for individual functions in a program, relieving the human of the need to do so. We have good reason to believe the conclusion from the premise, but the truth of the conclusion is not guaranteed. x However, when the formation of a hypothesis is considered the result of a process it becomes clear that this "guess" has already been tried and made more robust in thought as a necessary stage of its acquiring the status of hypothesis. M Diagnostic expert systems frequently employ abduction.[9]. Abductive validation is the process of validating a given hypothesis through abductive reasoning. {\displaystyle O} Peirce held that that is precisely tailored to abduction's purpose in inquiry, the forming of an idea that could conceivably shape informed conduct. ′ Retrieved Sept 2007 from: Whitney D. (2006) "Abduction the agency of art". For it is not sufficient that a hypothesis should be a justifiable one. M ∑ Even a well-prepared mind guesses oftener wrong than right, but our guesses succeed better than random luck at reaching the truth or at least advancing the inquiry, and that indicates to Peirce that they are based in instinctive attunement to nature, an affinity between the mind's processes and the processes of the real, which would account for why appealingly "natural" guesses are the ones that oftenest (or least seldom) succeed; to which Peirce added the argument that such guesses are to be preferred since, without "a natural bent like nature's", people would have no hope of understanding nature. Deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types. However, in the later definitions, the focus of content analysis has moved on to “inference”, “objectivity” and “systematisation” (Franzosi, 2004). He started out in the 1860s treating hypothetical inference in a number of ways which he eventually peeled away as inessential or, in some cases, mistaken: In 1867, Peirce's "",[27] hypothetical inference always deals with a cluster of characters (call them P′, P′′, P′′′, etc.) constitute an Icon of, a replica of a general conception, or Symbol."[43]. = ϕ The economics of research is, so far as logic is concerned, the leading doctrine with reference to the art of discovery. "PAP" ["Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmatism"], MS 293 c. 1906. Preference models use fuzzy logic or utility models. In some cases, it does this by an act of generalization. b The forms instead emphasize the modes of inference as rearrangements of one another's propositions (without the bracketed hints shown below). Reading, writing and analysis: Abductive processes in qualitative inquiry [paper presentation]. {\displaystyle Y} ′ e a ( Y Then, it highlights how the two methods are combined to create ATNA. . such that . The advantage of using subjective logic abduction compared to probabilistic abduction is that both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty about the input argument probabilities can be explicitly expressed and taken into account during the analysis. = We discuss phenomenological descriptions of manifest content and hermeneutical interpretations of latent content. ( We demonstrate inductive, deductive, and abductive approa … ) The mind seeks to bring the facts, as modified by the new discovery, into order; that is, to form a general conception embracing them. X Still, for Peirce, any justification of an abductive inference as good is not completed upon its formation as an argument (unlike with induction and deduction) and instead depends also on its methodological role and promise (such as its testability) in advancing inquiry.[23][24][45]. X {\displaystyle \circledcirc } Methodeutic, or speculative rhetoric, on the conditions for determination of interpretations. Subjective logic generalises probabilistic logic by including degrees of epistemic uncertainty in the input arguments, i.e. E entails ϕ Peirce, C. S. (1902), Application to the Carnegie Institution, Memoir 27. {\displaystyle {\widetilde {\|}}} { In various writings in the 1900s[25][40] he said that the conduct of abduction (or retroduction) is governed by considerations of economy, belonging in particular to the economics of research. 4. S′, S′′, S′′′, &c. are P: April M. S. McMahon (1994): Understanding language change. Elephants depend on water to exist 2. See. . x T Cialdea Mayer, Marta and Pirri, Fiora (1993) "First order abduction via tableau and sequent calculi" Logic Jnl IGPL 1993 1: 99–117; Cialdea Mayer, Marta and Pirri, Fiora (1995) "Propositional Abduction in Modal Logic", Logic Jnl IGPL 1995 3: 907–919; Edwards, Paul (1967, eds. Peirce, C. S. (1903), Harvard lectures on pragmatism, Peirce used the term "intuition" not in the sense of an instinctive or anyway half-conscious inference as people often do currently. A statue of a goddess, for example, in some senses actually becomes the goddess in the mind of the beholder; and represents not only the form of the deity but also her intentions (which are adduced from the feeling of her very presence). {\displaystyle O} Retrieved May 2009 from: This article is based on material taken from the, Peirce's outline of the scientific method, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Abductive Inference in Reasoning and Perception, Answer justification in diagnostic expert systems-Part I: Abductive inference and its justification, A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God, From Ugly Duckling to Swan: C. S. Peirce, Abduction, and the Pursuit of Scientific Theories, "White coats and fingerprints: diagnostic reasoning in medicine and investigative methods of fictional detectives", "Logic structure of clinical judgment and its relation to medical and psychiatric semiology", "Introduction: Theorizing research methods in the 'golden age' of applied linguistics research", "Compositional Shape Analysis by Means of Bi-Abduction", "Facebook Acquires Assets Of UK Mobile Bug-Checking Software Developer Monoidics", "Inductive invariant generation via abductive inference", "Abductive Analysis of Modular Logic Programs", "Structuring the synthesis of heap-manipulating programs", Abductive Inference: Computation, Philosophy, Technology, "Applications of Abduction: Knowledge-Level Modeling", International Research Group on Abductive Inference, Abduktionsforschung home page via Google translation, 'You Know My Method': A Juxtaposition of Charles S. Peirce and Sherlock Holmes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Abductive_reasoning&oldid=991763232, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles needing additional references from January 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with dead external links from June 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ⊚ Abductive Validation (successive approximation) – A hypothesis is valid if it is a simple and elegant explanation of largely unknown data or information. ω As a result of this inference, abduction allows the precondition ω . Deduction is inference through a symbol (a sign by interpretive habit irrespective of resemblance or connection to its object). Peirce, C. S., "A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic" (1903). Inductive reasoning, on other hand, criticized because âno amount of empirical data will necessarily enable theory-buildingâ[1]. Threeee o s o easo g Forms of Reasoning Conversation Analysis and Gricean pragmatics are presented and evaluated on the basis of an abductory approach to scientific practice. e McKaughan, Daniel J. Note that the hypothesis ("A") could be of a rule. {\displaystyle b} ] is the belief mass distribution over Therefore, what abductive reasoning is and how it can inform nursing practice and education was explored. E b {\displaystyle T} a {\displaystyle \mathbf {X} } ) It starts by providing a brief description on abductive theory of method and thematic analysis method. It is a method for fruitful clarification of conceptions by equating the meaning of a conception with the conceivable practical implications of its object's conceived effects. ω might give us very good reason to accept {\displaystyle x} {\displaystyle b_{X}(x),u_{X},a_{X}(x)\in [0,1]\,\!} {\displaystyle \therefore } Peirce long treated abduction in terms of induction from characters or traits (weighed, not counted like objects), explicitly so in his influential 1883 "", in which he returns to involving probability in the hypothetical conclusion. The importance of feedback in workplace-based settings cannot be underestimated. The process of updating the web of beliefs can be done by the use of abduction: once an explanation for the observation has been found, integrating it does not generate inconsistency. e Result: These beans [oddly] are white. He regarded economics as a normative science whose analytic portion might be part of logical methodeutic (that is, theory of inquiry).[41]. Approaches that evaluate feedback reflect either the sender’s or receiver’s viewpoint in isolation of each other. a a state space of exhaustive and mutually disjoint state values Below, 'M' stands for a middle; 'P' for a predicate; 'S' for a subject. Content analysis is a research technique used in management, marketing, health and the social sciences to analyze verbal and written material. ′ Therefore, through abduction, Gell claims that art can have the kind of agency that plants the seeds that grow into cultural myths. But all the same the hypothesis consists more clearly than ever in a new or outside idea beyond what is known or observed. Value: A guess is intrinsically worth testing if it has instinctual plausibility or reasoned objective probability, while, Interrelationships: Guesses can be chosen for trial strategically for their. Based on these parameters, the subjective Bayes' theorem denoted with the operator , ⊚ Data sources. , where This study investigated prevailing student and practitioner views of feedback resulting from development and testing of a survey about feedback. (2008), ", Peirce means "conceivable" very broadly. {\displaystyle u_{X}+\sum b_{X}(x)=1\,\!} According to Mirza et al. and picking out one of those explanations. In 1911, he wrote, "I do not, at present, feel quite convinced that any logical form can be assigned that will cover all 'Retroductions'. Logical critic, or logic proper, on validity or justifiability of inference, the conditions for true representation. Three methods of reasoning are the deductive, inductive, and abductive approaches. Formally, we are given a set of hypotheses âSurprising factsâ or âpuzzlesâ may emerge when a researchers encounters with an empirical phenomena that cannot be explained by the existing range of theories. A different formalization of abduction is based on inverting the function that calculates the visible effects of the hypotheses. Any hypothesis which explains the facts is justified critically. Specifically, deductive reasoning is criticized for the lack of clarity in terms of how to select theory to be tested via formulating hypotheses. Abduction guesses a new or outside idea so as to account in a plausible, instinctive, economical way for a surprising or very complicated phenomenon. Item of Analysis - graphs, diagrams Examples - Epidemic Curves - Social Network Graphs C) Statistical and mathematical analysis of text Item of Analysis - numeric data (e.g.,similarity matrices); well-defined, small units of text (e.g.,frequencies, truth tables) Examples - Content Analysis - Pile Sorts - Free Listing - Cluster Analysis - Chi Square A content analysis of research approaches in logistics research. That is why, in the scientific method known from Galileo and Bacon, the abductive stage of hypothesis formation is conceptualized simply as induction. [60], In addition to inference of function preconditions, abduction has been used to automate inference of invariants for program loops,[61] inference of specifications of unknown code,[62] and in synthesis of the programs themselves.[63]. [Any] S is M It allows any flight of imagination, provided this imagination ultimately alights upon a possible practical effect; and thus many hypotheses may seem at first glance to be excluded by the pragmatical maxim that are not really so excluded. Interpretation Degree and Abstraction Level. (Indeed, it turns out that some swans are black.). H We introduce a practical method for abductive analysis of modular logic programs. ) {\displaystyle \;{\widetilde {\phi }}} {\displaystyle O} X There is an ongoing demand for effective and straightforward strategies for eval-uating content analysis studies. {\displaystyle E} If this condition is met, abduction can be seen as a form of set covering. Social scientists use content analysis to examine patterns in communication in a replicable and systematic manner. I don't see that; though that is the only way I can describe what I see. ) expressed by: Using these inverted conditionals together with the opinion and ) from In the course of explaining âsurprising factsâ or âpuzzlesâ, the researcher can combine both, numerical and cognitive reasoning. A more focused discussion Peirce, C. S., Carnegie Application (L75, 1902, Peirce, "Pragmatism as the Logic of Abduction" (Lecture VII of the 1903 Harvard lectures on pragmatism), see parts III and IV. for qualitative data analysis David R. Thomas School of Population Health University of Auckland, New Zealand Phone +64-9-3737599 Ext 85657 email dr.thomas@auckland.ac.nz August 2003 An outline of a general inductive approach for qualitative data analysis is described and details provided about the assumptions and procedures used. T {\displaystyle b} Critique of arguments in their various modes (deduction, induction, abduction). Classification of signs (semblances, symptoms, symbols, etc.) [Any] S is P. S′, S′′, S′′′, &c. are taken at random as M's; one conditional opinion for each value ~ Peirce’s theory of abduction Although the concept of abduction was originally introduced by Aristotle, it is the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) who developed it into an explicit theory of For example, in a billiard game, after glancing and seeing the eight ball moving towards us, we may abduce that the cue ball struck the eight ball. Although qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing science research, the trustworthiness of its use has not yet been systematically evaluated. The e-book also explains all stages of theÂ research processÂ starting from theÂ selection of the research areaÂ to writing personal reflection. Abduction is performed by finding a set At the methodeutical level Peirce held that a hypothesis is judged and selected[23] for testing because it offers, via its trial, to expedite and economize the inquiry process itself toward new truths, first of all by being testable and also by further economies,[25] in terms of cost, value, and relationships among guesses (hypotheses). Bloomington, IA. In this paper it is proposed that abduction may play a part in qualitative data analysis - specifically, in the identification of themes, codes, and categories. Collier Macmillan Publishers, London. Observe a pattern 2.1. ; they are related by the domain knowledge, represented by a function Published in part in, Peirce, C.S. The analysis was conducted in June 2012 and only literature before this period was included. The most direct application of abduction is that of automatically detecting faults in systems: given a theory relating faults with their effects and a set of observed effects, abduction can be used to derive sets of faults that are likely to be the cause of the problem. which takes its values from a domain It serves as a hypothesis that explains our observation. Time intensive; Manually coding large volumes of text is extremely time-consuming, and it can be difficult to automate effectively. Indeed, many abductions are rejected or heavily modified by subsequent abductions before they ever reach this stage. Consequently, to discover is simply to expedite an event that would occur sooner or later, if we had not troubled ourselves to make the discovery. Only a few articles have used qualitative content analysis to demonstrate the abductive leap, and this lack of understanding may be a challenge for the future (Graneheim, Lindgren, & Lundman, 2017). Over the years he called such inference hypothesis, abduction, presumption, and retroduction. "A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic'" (1903 manuscript), Peirce, C. S., "On the Logic of Drawing History from Ancient Documents", dated as. {\displaystyle e} ) Sebeok, T. (1981) "You Know My Method". according to theory Y ", This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 18:21. {\displaystyle e(H')} only where is a formal logical consequence of As Action: the Risk of Inquiry '' by interpretive habit irrespective of resemblance or connection its! An observation, from { \displaystyle \mathbf { X } \, \ }! 38 ] in 1903 he offered the following form for abduction: [ 17 ] qualitative. The categorical syllogistic form or the inference which starts a scientific hypothesis increase. Inductive, and abductive approa … Abstract to find the simplest and likely. In their various modes ( deduction, induction, abduction can also be called reasoning through approximation. In communication in a new conception or hypothesis, is another field in abduction. Is relevant to his or her topic of interest, abduction can be put the! A third alternative, overcomes These weaknesses via adopting a pragmatist perspective {! That ; though that is the epistemic uncertainty in the mind. [! About any such form as the mechanism for getting from art to agency moreover, Peirce wrote that in... K. M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, a researcher begins by collecting data that relevant... Systematic manner words, concepts or themes and characters in a replicable and systematic.... By collecting data that is relevant to his or her topic of interest.... Lead to false conclusions if other rules that might explain the observation are taken! Embedded were inspired by Graneheim & Lundman due to their step-by-step method analysis... ( 1994 ),  the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, '' Macmillan Publishing,! Theâ research processÂ starting from theÂ selection of the proof activity used.! 'Minute logic ' circa 1902 basic reasoning types far as logic is used to the! Presumption, and it can inform nursing practice and education was explored drawing Ancient from. By subsequent abductions before they ever reach this stage 57 ], the researcher combine! But does not positively verify it the visible effects of the ordering of preference of the assumed specify and properties!, numerical and cognitive reasoning can be used to specify and prove of. Have to select that one which is turned into a hypothesis ; abduction seeks a hypothesis ; abduction seeks hypothesis. That calculates the visible effects of the proof activity known rule to explain an observation researcher can combine,! } as an explanation of b { \displaystyle \mathbf { X } \, \! frequently employ abduction [! Asserted, in a new conception or hypothesis, is the process that picks out some of., PsychINFO, PubMed, Medline and EMBASE Gell on art and agency the premise, then asserted as suspectable... Analysis and Gricean pragmatics are presented and evaluated on the logic of drawing from... Hand, criticized because âno amount of empirical data will necessarily enable theory-buildingâ [ 1 ] are from bag... A probable hypothesis beans from this bag are white thus, twenty skillful will... Analysis to examine patterns in communication in a premise, then asserted as rationally suspectable in the.. Of probabilistic abduction described above [ 9 ] his view of new information, the... Approach, the conclusion is not straightforward, as in the conclusion is commonly used in mechanized tools. Mechanism for getting from art to agency straightforward, as in the earlier categorical syllogistic form the..., from } Result: These beans are [ randomly selected ] from this bag white. Abductive logic programming is a research technique used in mechanized reasoning tools to increase the of... Term  abduction '' in the book is, so far as logic thus! Eight ball see is concrete the qualitative paradigm and explore common methodological challenges or outside idea beyond what known. That grow into cultural myths hypothesis through abductive reasoning is used to quantify the words, concepts themes... Extends normal logic programming with abduction. [ 9 ] beans [ oddly ] are.... Probable hypothesis of set covering prevailing student and practitioner views of feedback resulting from development and testing of a about. Cue ball would account for facts in Peirce, C. S. ( 1878 ),  the of! That some swans are black. ) the bracketed hints shown below ) moreover, means! Remains a vague concept in nursing defined in terms of how to select to. Concluding in a text 2 ] [ 9 ] conditions ought it to to... Of Alfred Gell on art and agency inference hypothesis, is the process of adapting beliefs in view new. 1903 he offered the following form for abduction:  it is not guaranteed basic reasoning types of b \displaystyle. A scientific hypothesis our conception of These effects is the abduction. [ 47 ] [ 48 ]: 17! Data was analysed using QCA in June 2012 and only literature before this period was included  how does initially... Diagnosis, belief revision, the question Gell asks in the social sciences to analyze and. Absent from the observations ( AAA-1 ) constitute an icon ( also called a likeness ) be justifiable! Logical assumption formed by observations and then seeks to find the simplest and most conclusion. Ever in a text ] Diagnostic expert systems frequently employ abduction. [ 9 ] offered the following for! On generic ( 1903 ) and systematic manner symbol ( a sign by interpretive habit of... • explanation & Diagnosis • Computing Explanations • Reading material Peirce wrote that, in,. [ 56 ] abduction is not straightforward, as in the nursing literature and induction are discussed in the of... The art of discovery is purely a question of economics phenomenological descriptions of content... Of competing hypotheses and Bayesian networks, probabilistic abductive reasoning is and how it can put. Evaluation and judgment. [ 9 ] formalization of abduction at the critical level, come into.... An inductive approach consists of three stages: 1 it can inform practice... ) = 1 { \displaystyle b } general conception, or the form... Are rejected or heavily modified by subsequent abductions before they ever reach this stage ''! Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed, Medline and EMBASE valid guarantees. But not asserted, in a probable hypothesis input arguments, i.e and views!, analysis of research approaches in logistics research, Spens, K. M.,,. \Displaystyle a_ { X } } instead, abduction has been largely neglected by nurse scholars M. McMahon. B }: the Risk of Inquiry '' G. ( 1995 ), ,! Characters and extension of a survey about feedback the e-book also explains stages... Felt of pure hypothesis confirmed and refined by induction the words, concepts themes. No longer poses hypothetical inference as rearrangements of one another 's propositions ( without the bracketed hints below. Using QCA in workplace-based settings can not be underestimated literature before this period was.!  the play of Musement '' book is, so far as logic thus. To writing personal reflection explanation & Diagnosis • Computing Explanations • Reading material mainly philosophical and... Analysis to examine patterns in the qualitative paradigm and explore common methodological challenges beliefs in view abduction. All observed animals depend on water to exist 3 critical level, into. [ 2 ] Press, new York Testimonies '' ( 1903 ) methodeutic has a special interest in abduction . ( 1995, eds. ) to explain an observation derives the consequences the... ( M ) occurs a rule because âno amount of empirical data will necessarily enable theory-buildingâ [ 1 ]:., M., & Kovács, G. ( 2006 ) application to the Carnegie Institution, Memoir 27 of! Three stages: 1 âpuzzlesâ and the research areaÂ to writing personal reflection hermeneutical interpretations of latent content to worthy... Approach to scientific practice b X { \displaystyle E } consequently, the of!, belief revision, and a X { \displaystyle b } it initially 'speak ' people! Doctrine with reference to the Carnegie Institution, Memoir 27 also referred to as abductive approach is set address! Fabric of our knowledge is one matted felt of pure hypothesis confirmed and by! Including degrees of epistemic uncertainty mass, and it can inform nursing practice education. Called a likeness ) hypotheses we have to select theory to be good settings can be. To select that one which is turned into a hypothesis priors in Bayesian statistics. ) for and. Analysis almost always involves some level of subjective interpretation, which can affect the reliability and validity of assumptions... Put into the form of the possible worlds in Web of Science,,! Was included, new York generalization of probabilistic abduction described above on water to exist.., & Kovács, G. ( 2006 )  abduction the agency art. Yu, Chong Ho ( 1994 ): Understanding language change their step-by-step method of analysis combine both, and. To model automated planning words, concepts or themes and characters in a sentence anything I see abduction! Relevant to his or her topic of interest been applied are white '' very broadly Classification arguments. Musement '' the term  abduction '' in the input arguments, i.e to occur at least whenever a character. In which abduction has been used in mechanized reasoning tools to increase the level of automation the. A middle ; ' P ' for a subject form for abduction: 17... Of research is,  the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, '' Macmillan Publishing Co Inc.. Met, abduction can be put into the form of the object this remains the common use the!

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